Info on Nomes of Egypt

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http://www.nazareneremnant.org/the-42-nomes-of-ancient-egypt.html

 

Pharaohs of the second intermediate period ‘pencilled in’ tentatively

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Pharaohs of the Second Intermediate Period 'pencilled in' tentatively.

Pharaohs of the Second Intermediate Period ‘pencilled in’ tentatively.

Pharaohs of the Second Intermediate Period ‘pencilled in’ tentatively – view PDF

Tentative diagram reconciling the Saqqara and Abydos King lists with the Bible

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Unfinished diagram illustrating a tentative alignment of the pharaohs of the Abydos and Saqqara king lists with the Bible.

Unfinished diagram illustrating a tentative alignment of the pharaohs of the Abydos and Saqqara king lists with the Bible.

Saqqara and Abydos king lists tentatively aligned with the Bible – view PDF

The Saqqara king list (a.k.a. Saqqara Tablet) contains a list of Egyptian pharaohs. It was found in the tomb of a priest by the name of Tjunery (ṯwnry), who lived during the reign of Ramesses II.

The Saqqara king list (a.k.a. Saqqara Tablet) contains a list of Egyptian pharaohs. It was found in the tomb of a priest by the name of Tjunery (ṯwnry), who lived during the reign of Ramesses II.

Abydos King List - on the wall of the Sethi I mortuary temple in Abydos.

Abydos King List – on the wall of the Sethi I mortuary temple in Abydos.

Tentative diagram reconciling Abydos King List with Bible

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Trial diagram aligning Abydos king list with the Bible - further refinement needed.

Trial diagram aligning Abydos king list with the Bible – further refinement needed.

Trial diagram aligning Abydos king list with the Bible -view PDF

 

Abydos King List - on the wall of the Sethi I mortuary temple in Abydos.

Abydos King List – on the wall of the Sethi I mortuary temple in Abydos.

King Lists of Egypt

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List of Pharaohs  Dynasties  Historians  Manetho  Manetho

Abydos King List - on the wall of the Sethi I mortuary temple in Abydos.

Abydos King List – on the wall of the Sethi I mortuary temple in Abydos.

Abydos King List  Abydos Canon

The Turin Papyrus King List.

The Turin Papyrus King List.

Turin King List    The Turin Papyrus king list

The Saqqara king list (a.k.a. Saqqara Tablet) contains a list of Egyptian pharaohs. It was found in the tomb of a priest by the name of Tjunery (ṯwnry), who lived during the reign of Ramesses II.

The Saqqara king list (a.k.a. Saqqara Tablet) contains a list of Egyptian pharaohs. It was found in the tomb of a priest by the name of Tjunery (ṯwnry), who lived during the reign of Ramesses II.

Saqqara King List    Saqqara Canon

Karnak King List

Karnak King List

Karnak King List   Karnak Canon

The Palermo Stone

The Palermo Stone

Palermo Stone

The Royal Annals King List

The Marseille Stele

The Ramesseum king list

Medinet Habu king list

Geography helps us understand how dynasties ran in parallel

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Preliminary drawing showing the major Nomes and the dynasties of Egypt running in parallel

Preliminary drawing showing the major Nomes and the dynasties of Egypt running in parallel

 

This is a preliminary / intermediate diagram illustrating how Egyptian dynasties ran in parallel and how the  Egyptian Chronology  can be shortened.

It still needs a lot of work.

Knowledge about Egypt’s provinces (Nomes) helps to understand overlaping dynasties. see PDF

The chronology of the Old Kingdom needs to be worked out

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Mentuhotep II of the 11th dynasty was only king of upper and lower Egypt for part of his reign – at a time when the Israelites were in Egypt.

Mentuhotep II wearing the crown of Upper Egypt.

Mentuhotep II wearing the crown of Upper Egypt.

Mentuhotep II was the 5th Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty which as based in Thebes. The son of Intef III. He reigned for 51 years. Around the 14th year of his reign, he defeated the Herakleopolitans (10th dynasty) and was able to considate his reign. Around his 39th year on the throne he reunited Egypt. He is considered by many to be the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

Manetho’s statement that the 11th Dynasty consisted of 16 kings, who reigned for 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony establishes that this kingdom consisted of seven kings who ruled for a total of 143 years.

The 11th dynasty seem to have originated with a Nomach from Thebes “Intef the Great”. His son Mentuhotep I is regarded as the first king of the dynasty.  Intef II, son of Mentuhotep I, was the first king of the dynasty to lay claim to ruling Upper and Lower Egypt but only managed to take as far North as Abydos where he came into conflict with the 10th dynasty kings of Herakleopolis. His son Intef III was the father of Mentuhotep II.

Ancient Egypt had 42 provinces or ‘Nomes’ as they were called. These were divided into those of Upper Egypt and those of Lower Egypt. Each province or ‘Nome’ had a Govenor or ‘Nomarch’.

Dynasties refer to a line of rulers who were related to one another. Dynasties often ran in parallel in different parts of the country. Potentially, there could be 42 dynasties running in parallel at one time in Egypt if each Nome had a series of leaders from the one family line.

The 11th dynasty, based in Thebes, was contemporary with dynasties in other parts of the country. In particular, the 9th and 10th dynasties, based in Herakleopolis, often referred to the as the First Intermediate Period (when Lower Egypt had no King), were contemporary with the 11th dynasty. The 9th and 10th Dynasties lasted only 20 years and followed the sixth dynasty which was also contemporary with the 11th dynasty but in a different part of the country (Memphis).

The principal dynasties that were recorded by Manetho refer to the families that ruled Upper and Lower Egypt or both (ie Kings).

Mentuhotep II defeated the Herakleopolitians in the 14th year of his reign. This ended the First Intermediate Period when Lower Egypt had no King.  Egypt was not unified, however, until the 39th year of his reign.

At what point did Mentuhotep II become the King of Upper and Lower Egypt? Was it by force when he defeated the Herakleopolitians or was it in the 39th year of his reign when Egypt became unified?

Mentuhotep II wearing the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt

Mentuhotep II wearing the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt

Assuming that there was continuity of the Kingship, the chronology of Egypt would be considerably shorter if the dynasties were aligned according to when a change of Kings occurred without shortening the dynasty as there would, no doubt, be much more overlap of dynasties.

When Pharaohs (Kings) took the reign by force, they would subjugate the other Nomarchs, killing those who would not submit and allowing those who did to continue their dynasty in parallel.

After all, there were 42 Nomes and 42 Nomarches and potentially there could have been 42 dynasties running at one time. Only the major dynasties were recorded by Manetho. These were the more important dynasties in which a Nomarch ruled Upper or Lower Egypt and sometimes both Upper and Lower Egypt. What’s more, these Nomarchs could have reigned considerably longer than the period that they wore the crown of Upper or Lower Egypt or both. Failure to understand this would grossly prolong the Egyptian Chronology.

There may have been times that Egypt had no native king to unite it’s 42 Nomes. This was most likely the case during the first intermediate period even though it was contemporary with the 11th dynasty. The second intermediate period was a time when Lower Egypt was ruled by foreign invaders from Arabia (the Hyksos).

Geography

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